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BC Lung Association Report

The following table and figure are taking from:

A Report prepared for the BC Lung Association: Health and Air Quality
2002 - Phase 1:
Authors: BATES, D.V., KOENIG, J., BRAUER, M., & CATON, R.
May 2003: pp120:

Table 3

Summary of effects of individual air pollutants and mixtures at current ambient levels of exposure*

Pollutant Definite Effects Probable Effects Possible Effects
Fine Particles
(PM10, PM2.5)
Time-series and cohort association with daily respiratory and cardiac mortality

Aggravation of asthma

Increased hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiac conditions

Depressed lung function in schoolchildren (acute & chronic)

Increased prevalence of bronchitis

Increased risk of lung cancer

Increased school absences

Increase in banded neutrophils
  

Aggravation of acute respiratory infections

Increased risk of wheezy bronchitis in infants 4-12 months

Decreased rate of lung growth in children

Increased exhaled NO

Tachycardia in the elderly

Reduced heart rate variability

Increased c-reactive protein

Increased blood vessel constriction

Decreased birth weight

Increased blood fibrinogen

Increased asthma prevalence

Diesel Emissions
(in addition to particle effects)
Increased response to allergens

Increased airway inflammation
  

Increased risk of lung cancer   
Wood smoke
(in addition to particle effects)
Aggravation of asthma

Increased hospital respiratory admissions

Increased respiratory infections

   Increased mortality
Ozone Increased hospital admissions for acute respiratory diseases

Aggravation of asthma

Increased bronchial responsiveness

Increased response to SO2

Increased reduced activity days

Increased school absences for respiratory illness

Reduced lung function
  

Effect on mortality

Increased sensitivity to allergens

Aggravation of acute respiratory infections

Chronic bronchiolitis with repetitive exposure

Increased prevalence of asthma

Aerosol sulphates & nitrates Reduced visibility

Decreased mucociliary clearance (in rabbits) (H2SO4)
  

May be partly responsible for effects of PM2.5

Decreased lung function in adolescents with asthma
  

May increase all effects of concomitant ozone
Acid aerosols
(combined gases & particles)
  
Aggravation of asthma Increased prevalence of bronchitis May increase all effects of concomitant ozone
Sulphur dioxide Acute bronchoconstriction in asthmatics

Increased chronic bronchitis

Increased prevalence of lung cancer

Increased nasal congestion (work of breathing)

Interaction with particles in relation to mortality and morbidity effects

Increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis
  

Nitrogen dioxide Increased respiratory morbidity & infections

Aggravation of asthma in children

Lowered FVC and FEV1

Increased response to ozone
  

Increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine

Chronic respiratory bronchiolitis

Interaction with particles in relation to mortality and morbidity effects
Carbon monoxide Increased cardiac ischemia Increased hospital cardiac admissions

Decreased birth weight

Increased cardiac mortality

Increased birth defects

Interaction with particles in relation to mortality and morbidity effects
  

Hydrogen sulphide Central nervous system and respiratory symptoms

Eye irritation

Mortality at very high concentrations
  

Chronic sinusitis   

* Adapted from Table 4.3, A Citizen's Guide to Air Pollution, second edition, The David Suzuki Foundation, 2002. D.V. Bates & R.B. Caton, eds.)

Figure 3

Hierarchy of air pollution health effects

Figure 3

 

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